Criminal Defense Lawyers Specializing in Juvenile Offenses
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Court: Juvenile Court
Complainant: Public Prosecutor's Office
Accusation: Commission of crimes
Criminal liability for children under 14 years of age
According to the law, when a person under 14 is responsible for a criminal act, he or she is not criminally liable. It is from this age when responsibilities can be demanded. However, the Public Prosecutor’s Office must analyze the situation to protect the minor, and the parents or guardians must pay an administrative sanction.
Criminal liability for minors between 14 and 18 years of age
Juvenile criminal attorney
If the active subject is older than 14 and younger than 18, the law will demand responsibility according to the type of crime and its seriousness. These crimes are prosecuted under a special regime in the Juvenile Courts. Although minors cannot go to jail, economic sanctions can be imposed, or the child can be placed in a reformatory center.
Reformatories are penitentiary centers designed to reeducate and reintegrate minors who have committed criminal offenses.
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Most common crimes involving minors
Explained by our experienced criminal lawyers for minors.
Below, we will briefly discuss minors’ most common crimes and their respective penalties.
Young people represent the age group that uses technology the most nowadays, and due to the excellent knowledge of minors about technology, these types of crimes are widespread.
They consist of behaviors that use technological means to carry out criminal acts, such as scams, cyberbullying, and phishing.
Theft, robbery and theft and receiving of stolen goods
These three criminal acts are very similar and are usually committed jointly by groups or organizations.
The theft consists of stealing another’s property for profit and against the owner’s will, while robbery involves intimidation or violence against persons or force against things.
Receiving consists of helping the perpetrators of a crime to take advantage of the results or effects of the crime or to hide them for profit without participating in the previous offense.
Crimes against persons
Crimes against persons include a series of conducts whose common factor is that they attempt against persons’ physical or emotional integrity.
These crimes include injuries, insults, domestic violence, or mistreatment. In most cases, these are serious offenses characterized by relatively high penalties.
Explained by our juvenile attorney
If a minor has committed a crime and the authorities proceed to arrest him or her, this will be done differently than usual.
First, it must be done in the least harmful way to the minor, clearly informing him/her of all his/her rights. Afterward, his parents or legal guardians and the Public Prosecutor’s Office must be informed of the detention and where he will be held.
The detention of the minor must have a maximum period of twenty-four hours. Otherwise, he/she will be released or placed at the disposal of the Public Prosecutor’s Office, which will decide the case resolution within forty-eight hours.
Any statement of the minor must be made before a lawyer for minors and their legal guardians, except in certain circumstances.
During the whole time the minor is in custody, he/she will receive all the necessary care and psychological help if he/she wishes.
The lawyer for minors will watch over the rights of the child and his family, advising them on the strategy to follow for his defense, always prioritizing the minor’s best interest. In our law firm, which specializes in juvenile crimes, you will find the seriousness and professionalism that your case needs.
Joint and several liability of parents or guardians in crimes committed by minors
In crimes committed, parents or legal guardians may be sentenced to assume the civil liability of the minor derived from the crime committed by the child.
Penalties for crimes committed by minors
The Penal Code contemplates a series of measures to punish and correct the conduct of a minor who commits an offense.
Reprimands to minors
In the reprimand issued by the juvenile judge, an attempt is made to make the minor understand the seriousness of the acts committed and the consequences to avoid repeating them in the future.
Disqualification of minors
The disqualification of minors consists of applying measures that deprive the child of specific honors, public offices, and jobs.
Community service is a commonplace measure imposed on minors. However, this must be accepted by them. Otherwise, another sanction will be set.
Socio-educational tasks consist of educational activities to help the minor correct his or her behavior.
In probation, the minor’s behavior is monitored, as well as the activities he/she performs, to verify the change in his/her behavior.
This measure obliges the minor to attend a center for specific educational activities periodically. The child is helped to solve psychological problems.
Disqualification of the minor is one of the most demanding measures. It consists of an absolute deprivation of honors, public offices, and jobs that would fall on the child.
Attendance at a day care center
The minor must temporarily attend a center for social, work, or educational activities, but without leaving his or her usual home.
Attendance at outpatient treatment centers
Outpatient treatment centers are intended to help the minor solve problems related to drugs, alcohol, or gambling.
There are three types of placement:
- Closed: The minor resides in the center and performs the corresponding activities.
- Semi-open: The minor resides in the center but carries out activities outside the center.
- Open: The minor carries out the activities in the center but lives in his or her usual home.
Living with a relative, guardian or center
The minor must live with other relatives or persons outside the family nucleus who facilitate and reinforce appropriate behavior.
Statute of limitations for crimes committed by minors
Depending on the seriousness of the criminal act, crimes committed by minors are subject to the following statute of limitations:
- At five years, it is a felony with a penalty exceeding ten years.
- After three years, when it is any other serious crime.
- After one year, it is a less severe crime.
- After three months, it is a misdemeanor.
At Esteban Criminal Lawyers, we are specialists in juvenile defense. We know deeply the Spanish juvenile justice system. Our lawyer offers you specialized assistance throughout the entire process.
What does the juvenile law say?
Artículo 7. Definición de las medidas susceptibles de ser impuestas a los menores y reglas generales de determinación de las mismas.
1. Las medidas que pueden imponer los Jueces de Menores, ordenadas según la restricción de derechos que suponen, son las siguientes:
a) Internamiento en régimen cerrado. Las personas sometidas a esta medida residirán en el centro y desarrollarán en el mismo las actividades formativas, educativas, laborales y de ocio.
b) Internamiento en régimen semiabierto. Las personas sometidas a esta medida residirán en el centro, pero podrán realizar fuera del mismo alguna o algunas de las actividades formativas, educativas, laborales y de ocio establecidas en el programa individualizado de ejecución de la medida. La realización de actividades fuera del centro quedará condicionada a la evolución de la persona y al cumplimiento de los objetivos previstos en las mismas, pudiendo el Juez de Menores suspenderlas por tiempo determinado, acordando que todas las actividades se lleven a cabo dentro del centro.
c) Internamiento en régimen abierto. Las personas sometidas a esta medida llevarán a cabo todas las actividades del proyecto educativo en los servicios normalizados del entorno, residiendo en el centro como domicilio habitual, con sujeción al programa y régimen interno del mismo.
d) Internamiento terapéutico en régimen cerrado, semiabierto o abierto. En los centros de esta naturaleza se realizará una atención educativa especializada o tratamiento específico dirigido a personas que padezcan anomalías o alteraciones psíquicas, un estado de dependencia de bebidas alcohólicas, drogas tóxicas o sustancias psicotrópicas, o alteraciones en la percepción que determinen una alteración grave de la conciencia de la realidad. Esta medida podrá aplicarse sola o como complemento de otra medida prevista en este artículo. Cuando el interesado rechace un tratamiento de deshabituación, el Juez habrá de aplicarle otra medida adecuada a sus circunstancias.
e) Tratamiento ambulatorio. Las personas sometidas a esta medida habrán de asistir al centro designado con la periodicidad requerida por los facultativos que las atiendan y seguir las pautas fijadas para el adecuado tratamiento de la anomalía o alteración psíquica, adicción al consumo de bebidas alcohólicas, drogas tóxicas o sustancias psicotrópicas, o alteraciones en la percepción que padezcan. Esta medida podrá aplicarse sola o como complemento de otra medida prevista en este artículo. Cuando el interesado rechace un tratamiento de deshabituación, el Juez habrá de aplicarle otra medida adecuada a sus circunstancias.
f) Asistencia a un centro de día. Las personas sometidas a esta medida residirán en su domicilio habitual y acudirán a un centro, plenamente integrado en la comunidad, a realizar actividades de apoyo, educativas, […]